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Public Affairs Management of Huizhou Villages and Towns in Ming Dynasty from the Perspective of Ancestral Ceremony and Township Covenants Hits:558    Addtime:2019-08-19 18:49:40
The enormity of social life and the complexity of its constituent elements determine that the management of public affairs is an eternal topic. In this respect, the management model of Huizhou villages and towns in Ming Dynasty has classical reference significance.

Most villages in Huizhou live together, and a village is often a family. Its management of public affairs is relatively easy and simple, so long as it relies on such things as ethnic rules in the feudal patriarchal clan system, it is enough to cope with it. However, for the cities and towns scattered by five parties, the clan power alone is not enough to manage as a whole, and even leads to clan conflicts. Therefore, we must adopt more effective means to deal with related affairs, in order to unify people's thinking, standardize people's behavior, and resolve the contradictions among residents.

Taking Yansi, the seat of Huizhou District Government in Huangshan City, as an example, it has been an important town in Southern Anhui Province for its superior location, convenient transportation, rich economy and prosperous humanities. As early as Jia and Long in Ming Dynasty, they became the flourishing place of "Liuyi City, the link between Jiuda and Wanjia, the scale of ten thousand families, the regulation of ten miles, the succession of valves and the convergence of Baichang". Although the land is magnificent and the things are flourishing, Yansi is neither a county government nor a government government government. How to deal with public affairs in such a large area can not but arouse our great interest. Apart from the basic-level organization management model (such as Lizheng, Dutu, Baojia) which has universal significance in feudal society, its ancestral rites and village conventions are very distinctive.

These are vividly and concretely depicted in Shi Huarui's Zhicao of Yanzhen, a beginner of the Qing Dynasty.

I. On the Temple Sacrifice

She Huarui pointed out in Zhicao Fafan: "The ancestral temple of Huijun is the most important sacrifice, which will never be forgotten for centuries. Respect the ancestors, respect the ancestors and collect the family. The clan surname of Fanyan must be unified by sacrificial rituals. It is also the place of moral education that governs the ancestors and descendants of the upper clan and descendants of the lower clan. King's system of 100 households, the value of agriculture and precious valley. Or the group name Zhu Du, or the gathering and Ming Li. When praying for the Spring and Autumn Newspapers, cross-cutting planning, to unite the joy of the neighborhood party, also follow the ancient way. Therefore, all its ancestral temples are recorded. However, Yansi has its own special features in Huizhou villages and towns, that is, there are a lot of people from other places, and there are more than 20 foreign surnames recorded in Shexian Chronicle. Therefore, there are more than 20 ancestral temples in Yanzhen Chronicle, which do not include other Li She altar buildings with related functions.

It is important to mention here that another kind of ancestral temple for public sacrifice in Hezhen has been built, that is, the ancestral hall for sacrificing the love left by the local chief executive with outstanding political voice, the ancestral hall for celebrities and officials with outstanding official achievements, the ancestral hall for reclusive worship, the ancestral hall for the learned and accomplished, and the ancestral hall for the righteous scholars in Sangzi. The County placards, government placards, treaty etiquette, decoration and sacrifice, and Zhuwen chronicles of the ancestral hall have relatively complete records and narratives, so that we can imagine its past grand ceremony and brilliance.

The purpose of building the temple is also clearly stated in Zhicao Fafan: "Sacrificing Fayun: defending and resisting catastrophes is sacrificed to them, which is also of great merit, and the tomatoes are rewarded with clouds." It is also said that when the law is applied to the people, sacrifices are offered, and virtue is respected and fragrance is revered. Life is expected, not sacrificed to the community, of course, the hearts and minds of the people are the same. Discipline ancestral hall, so good virtue of sincerity, and merit of the classic. The mountain scenery is dependable." In today's words, it is to set up a model and an example for future generations to remember and learn to imitate in order to cultivate and educate.

II. On the Rural Covenants

The function of morality is to inspire people, but the restraint of discipline can not be ignored. Therefore, the ancestral sacrifices are complementary to the local conventions.

The covenant was not the exclusive invention of Huizhou people. The most famous covenant in history is called "Lantian covenant". It was formulated by Lv Dajun brothers in Lantian (now Shaanxi) of the Northern Song Dynasty. It stipulates that the covenants should be "persuaded by virtue and industry", "regulated by negligence", "intersected by etiquette and custom" and "sympathized with adversity". Zhu Xi had revised it, which was called "Increasing Damage to Lushi Township Treaty". There are many imitators in later generations. The so-called "stone of other mountains" can attack jade. The Xiangxian of Huizhou can learn from the management methods of grass-roots society in traditional Chinese culture, and use them for our own use and seek practical results. It is worth studying since it was handed down.

"Zhicao of Yanzhen" has many remarks and management modes of local conventions, and retains some precious original written materials about local conventions:

In the biography of the characters, Zheng Zuo, one of the most famous figures in the history of Yansi Temple, mentioned in particular that after Zheng Zuo returned to his official post, he "tried to imitate the Lushi covenant of Lantian", "Yishu Yixiang", while the first scholar studied regularly in Nanshan Zhiyang every month. Joy and celebration, sorrow and hanging, industry and meeting, courtesy and justice first. The wise people who lead their homeland, build their homes in Guli, are all immortal careers. Zheng Zuo was a military officer of Ming Zhengde Jiashi (1514). His official came to Guizhou to participate in politics. He played an epoch-making role in the planning and construction history of Yansi villages and towns. Today, Wenfeng Pagoda and Fengshantai are still the landmark buildings of Ancient Hui New Town. Zheng Zuo was a high-ranking man, and his respondents were crowded. Although his status and other factors had an impact, in the process of transforming his personal will into the public will of Hezhen, the role of the township covenant and the power of the system could not be underestimated. For example, Zheng Zuo wrote in Tiao Zui Kou Tai Ta Shu Yu:

Yansi Town is a very popular place for people. There is only one mountain at the edge of Kodi Square. Never leak, never catch up with chemical industry. It is not difficult to exert oneself, but to work together. Fengtai Jiujianyunheng, completed Lai Zhong; Yan Pagoda on the seventh floor marking day, good things for people. With Yinshan in the West and Zhongliu pillar in the east. Outstanding people in both streets should be willing to make progress; a town must rely on predecessors to make plans. Financial needs are limited, and fortune is boundless. Shuyu is a kind of written message to God burned during the worship and confession of monks and Taoists in the old times. On the surface, they worship God, but in essence, they persuade people. This point is also reflected in his Quixing Advertisement on the Tower of Shuikou.

There are many pagodas in the world, but Buddhism is empty. I am not original because of my system. According to this article star, the title is ____________. Only Zhenshuikou, slightly incomplete. It is not the strong rate that prevents all desires. It's not a long time to work hard because of one's heart. There are tables like inkstones and peaks like pens. Seven-level towering, Wenxing's room. God is the dwelling place and the sky shines brightly. Humanities are propaganda in mediation and good offices. Five-star gathering, three is a couplet. I heard of the Yan Pagoda in the past, but now I see Hung-chien. Wans, Toz Stone Inspection. Its only virtuous, pray godless. God is the Lord, and I am not flattering.

In fact, in the inscriptions and chronicles of other public welfare buildings, there are many shadows of such rural rules and regulations that advocate and standardize public affairs. Limited to space, I will not repeat them here.

The function of the covenant is not only to "persuade each other by virtue and industry", "rule by negligence" and "intersection of etiquette and custom", but also to "sympathize with adversity". In other words, it not only enlightens people in customs, etiquette and morality, but also promotes public welfare, and responds to emergencies. Here, we may quote two historical materials of the residents of Yanzhen for their anti-disaster and anti-theft and preparation of the Japanese imperial pirates to get a glimpse. One is Zheng Zuo's "About the Township of Yanzhen" written in Jiajing Jiachen (1540):

Vivian Rock Town, Judang Chongyao, Daoyuan County Town. The law of the government, try three orders and five Shen; Lishe's article, also parallel and simultaneous. What is it now? Every day is full of drought, people are worried, the traitors take the opportunity to steal. False loan, dare to support the lonely village; rely on the strong beam, the weak arm. Day travel without scruples, night without words. It is advisable to plan for mulberry soil so as to avoid skin peeling. It is a collective strategy. A town is divided into eighteen managers, with discipline and outline; each of them has dozens of people, with one mind and one morality. There is no need for bravery and timidity, no need for beginning and ending. No matter what happens, no matter what happens, no matter what happens, no matter what happens, no matter what happens, no matter what happens, no matter what happens, no matter what happens, no matter what happens, no matter what happens. Reasonable and vigorous, violent know the warning and disappear; concerted efforts, good have no fear. The common people's sense of sympathy is restored to Dunhuang, while the custom of benevolence and generosity is strengthened. All agreements are hereby made.

The first is Fang Yuanzhen's "Tianyan Town Prepare Yo Township Treaty" written in Jiajing Yimao (1555):

Book is well prepared, Yi is a warning. When dealing with a tyrant, he must be at the top of the gate, especially when he is not in danger of getting rid of it. But I Yan Town, far from the county town, although more than two shelters; in view of this resident, as his village Xiwanzao is now Japanese aggressors, the situation is very Lu Liang. Lost and lonely, rushing and breaking out; stealing the rest of life, and spreading grass. In addition, I have long been a forerunner, Gu Yuqu has no good way to deal with it. Gather all the members of the community and renew the new alliance. Statute imitates, the article of the imperial aggressor of the first year of the year of famine; profit and loss of money, the old Zheng Gong of Shuangxi, Dashen. Firm gates, people have the basis to guard urgently; recommend courage, so that when the matter is at stake. Appealing to the eighteen chief executives, we should lead the way up and down the street. Comrade and concerted, and make every effort to publicize. The more local the people are, the better the city will be. The so-called "Wuzheng" is to sell troops and advocate the enemy of "Wanfu". As a result, the evil in the abdomen can be eliminated, and the government regulations can be further assisted. There are many benefits and great benefits. If you want to protect your family, you can't call it a circuitous act; Sle Shengping is still applied from the beginning.

It is not difficult for us to see how villagers manage, regulate and restrain themselves in some areas beyond the reach of local governments in order to survive and develop.

Today, our social development is in an important transition period. Quite a number of peasants are beginning to get rid of the restrictions of land and household registration and flock to cities and towns. Enterprise workers and public servants are also transiting from "unit people" to "community people" and "social people" in the planned economy era. Under this historical background, it is of great practical significance to explore the management mode of public affairs in grass-roots organizations of society. However, the rational core of traditional culture is still worthy of our study and innovation.

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