position:Home Page > > Huizhou Culture
Huizhou Merchants and the Development of Huizhou Imperial Examination Industry in Ming and Qing Dynasties Hits:5085    Addtime:2019-08-19 18:57:41
During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, Huizhou was not only a town of businessmen with ten rooms and nine merchants, but also a prosperous place of imperial examinations with "successive imperial examinations, patriarchal customs in China, noble officials and many people on behalf of others". The relationship among businessmen, commerce, Confucianism and imperial examinations is that "Jia is profitable, Confucianism is famous... A relaxation, alternate for use, not ten thousand bells, thousands of horses, the turning hub of Judao Tour (Wang Daokun: Tai Han Ji Volume 52, "Haiyang Virgin Jin Zhongweng with the Tomb Epitaph of Dai's Co-burial"). As some scholars have said, "For Huizhou, the imperial examination officials and commercial prosperity are like two wheels of a car and wings of a bird,'similar to practice more', and they are mutually useful. This is the two fulcrums of Huizhou's all-round development and brilliant achievements in history. (Ye Xianen, General Preface of Huizhou Culture, Anhui People's Publishing House, 2005 edition.) Therefore, the analysis of the relationship between Huizhou merchants and the development of Huizhou's imperial examination industry in Ming and Qing Dynasties is undoubtedly an important basic work of Huizhou studies, and also an important topic of typical regional studies in imperial examination studies.
Huizhou was one of the most developed areas of imperial examination industry in China during the Ming and Qing Dynasties.
When it comes to the development of imperial examinations in a region, the number of candidates is naturally the most important and basic indicator. The large number of candidates in an area is closely related to the idea of the imperial examination, the various educational measures taken around the imperial examination and the social customs formed in the area.
The development of the imperial examination industry in Huizhou in Ming and Qing Dynasties is mainly manifested in four aspects:
First, Huizhou people regard the imperial examination as the highest value pursuit. Most of the Huizhou clans originated from the Confucian family in the Central Plains or the noble officials. After the relocation of Huizhou, they not only maintained the original clan system, but also inherited the fine tradition of advocating Confucianism and religion, paying special attention to cultural education, and taking the road of learning and becoming an official and starting a family through science and technology. So in the early Southern Song Dynasty, only one county in Xiuning had more than 800 people who responded to the tribute at each time (Hong Shi: Xiuning Jianxue Ji, Kangxi Xiuning County Zhi, Volume 7 Yiwen Zhi), while the whole Huizhou was "without considering 2,000 people" (Chunxi Xin An Zhi, Volume 8, Name of Xujin Scholars). These Huizhou scholars, with their parents and clans'earnest expectations, often compete with the handsome people from all over the world in their writing style, mountains and forests, and they often succeed in the countryside. (Dai Yuanbiao: Epitaph of Mr. Xiaoshan Hu (Douyuan) and Volume 92 of Xin'an Documentation Records) cited a large number of people, which made Huizhou "the most famous ministers of the Song Dynasty". By the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the strong economic foundation created by commercial success made Huizhou people's pursuit of the imperial examination more intense. According to records, in the middle and late Ming Dynasty, Xiuning County "tried to have a director and moved to thousands of people" (Wanli Xiuning County Records Volume 1 "Customs"); even in Yixian County, where the economy and culture are relatively backward in Huizhou area, in the early Qing Dynasty, it was also "thousands of people for children" (Jiaqing Yixian Chronicle Volume 1 "Political Records School"). The reason for this is that Huizhou people are deeply aware of the truth that "the clan has official career, the Jews have clothes and eyebrows" (Yongzheng Xiuning's Wu Family Code of Mingzhou Volume 6), especially emphasizing the value of imperial examination official career in life.
Secondly, Huizhou people have created various educational institutions at all levels to create conditions for their descendants to enter the imperial examinations. Apart from official schools, various educational institutions at all levels, such as schools, philanthropy, academies, study rooms, cultural associations, were established by Huizhou folk people throughout urban and rural areas. It has formed the situation of "ten villages, not repealing reading", "Xin'an Lecture Academy is more than other counties", and "town and town, each Literary Association". Although the establishment of these educational institutions has multiple meanings, serving the imperial examination is undoubtedly one of their most important functions.

Here, we particularly want to point out the "Wenhui". During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, Huizhou was one of the most developed areas in the country. On the whole, the main function of Huizhou Literary Association in Ming and Qing Dynasties is to "gather the best students from one village and make the best of the Arts in class", and to enhance the competitiveness of the imperial examinations by "seeking the same kind, comparing the same friends and making the same beauty". Therefore, please write a composition on the topic of "literary master". However, reviewing articles has become the main educational and teaching activities of the literary society. Therefore, the prosperity of Huizhou imperial examination talents in Ming and Qing Dynasties is related to the extensive establishment of literary associations to some extent. As Jiang Xuehai, Ren of Shexian County, said in the first year of Qiyuan (1621) tomorrow, after the founding of Jiangcun Juxing Wenhui, the people were inspired and strived for self-hardening. (Wanli) The campaign of YU (thirteen years, 1585), two scholars recommended by the society, two scholars of Linxue Palace, and those who entered the Jiaoshu, the benefits of the Wenshe were evident. (Jiang Dengyun: "Orange Yang Sanzhi" Volume 11 "Yiwenzhi".

Thirdly, Huizhou people built archways for those who entered the imperial examinations and created a strong social atmosphere of respecting Confucianism and officials. Huizhou is the home of archways in China. During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, archways and groups of archways of different sizes and shapes stood everywhere in the urban and rural areas of Huizhou. According to local records, there were 145 archways in Xiuning County during Kangxi Period, 91 in Jixi County during Jiaqing Period, 155 in Wuyuan County at the end of Qing Dynasty and nearly 100 in Shexian County. During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the number of archways in six counties of Huizhou should be more than 1000 (see Li Linqi: Huizhou Merchants and Huizhou Education in Ming and Qing Dynasties, PP. 179-189). Among these numerous archways, Gao Jue Jia is the most famous one, that is, Shi Kefang, Jinshifang and Zhuangyuan Fang. These archways are actually monuments to the merits and honors of imperial examinations. The purpose of Huizhou people's "Tree Square Appears to Their Hometown" is to create a strong social atmosphere of respecting Confucianism and respecting officials.

Fourthly, Huizhou was one of the most successful provincial administrative regions in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. According to the local chronicles of Huizhou, the author makes a rough statistics (including some of the Chinese-style scholars of Huizhou who occupy or reside abroad). It is concluded that there were 452 Chinese scholars in Huizhou in Ming Dynasty and 56 Wujin scholars in Qing Dynasty. There were 684 Chinese scholars and 111 Wujin scholars in Huizhou in Qing Dynasty. The number of literary scholars in Huizhou in Ming and Qing Dynasties accounted for 2.2% of the country, of which 1.82% in Ming Dynasty and 2.55% in Qing Dynasty. Huizhou Scholars in Ming and Qing Dynasties not only ranked in the forefront of the national government, but also the number of top scholars was more prominent. According to statistics, there were 19 top candidates in Huizhou's native and residential examinations in the Qing Dynasty, accounting for 17% of the country. In terms of prefectures, Suzhou Prefecture in Qing Dynasty had the largest number of Champions (excluding Taicang prefecture) and 24. If six of them had Huizhou nationality, Suzhou Prefecture had 18 champions, one less than Huizhou Prefecture (see Li Linqi: Huizhou Education, 159-160 pages, Anhui People's Publishing House, 2005 edition).

Huizhou merchants provided the ideological basis and material conditions for the development of the imperial examination industry in Huizhou in the Ming and Qing Dynasties.

Under the influence of strong Huizhou traditional culture and traditional values, business is only a means for Huizhou people to survive and develop, and the ultimate concern of Huizhou businessmen is to let their children become officials and show their fame by using the profits from business. As Wang Shizhen, a famous scholar in the mid-Ming Dynasty, said, "There are many mountains in the four sides of Huizhou, and the people in the narrow areas can't afford food for farming, so they turn to Jia Sifang more often." And its vulgarity also does not shy away from Jia. Some of Jia Zhizhi's practitioners of courtesy and friendship are vague, but from the beginning, they often pursue immortality by compiling poems and books. (Wang Shizhen: Xuzhou Resumption Volume 116, Chief Scholar Cheng Gonggong and Wu Ruren's Memorial of Joint Funeral.) If Wang Kexun is a quiet man in Ming Dynasty, he will not be ambitious. Successfully drop out of posting. After he became rich in business, he delayed his famous teacher, supervised his son, and taught his son, "This is what I haven't done yet. Er Xiaorong slowed down day by day!" In the well-preserved residences of Hui merchants in Ming and Qing Dynasties, we can also see many couplets such as: "For hundreds of years, people have accumulated good deeds, the first good thing is just reading" (Xidi Village, Yixian County), "Wanshi Family Style is filial piety, and centuries of life is in reading." Books (Yixian Hongcun),'If you want to be high in rank, you must be good, you must read for your children and grandchildren'(Yixian Guanlu Village), and so on.
It is precisely because the ultimate concern of Hui merchants is to let their descendants learn Confucianism and enter the official career. In order to achieve this goal, after they become rich in business, they will spare no money and create conditions for the scholars in their hometown to study and become officials through imperial examinations. Firstly, we should support and develop the educational undertakings in our hometown in many ways and at many levels, such as urgently setting up schools, popularizing philosophical studies, advocating the construction of academies, and setting up cultural conferences, etc. The establishment and maintenance of educational institutions at all levels in Huizhou are inseparable from the active participation of Huizhou businessmen. Secondly, all-round financial support is provided to bachelor students from the bundle of ointment to family life, so that they have no worries about the future and devote themselves to learning. Huizhou's "business-based learning" and "business-assisted learning" run through a family, a family, a county and a government, forming a systematic and networked feature. Thirdly, we will actively contribute to the construction of county test rooms and government test halls, and build test halls in Nanjing and guild halls in Beijing to provide all-round services for scholars. Finally, we will donate the funds for the imperial examinations to provide financial support for those who go to Nanjing and Beijing to participate in the rural examinations and the conference examinations.

The development of Huizhou imperial examination industry in Ming and Qing Dynasties promoted the prosperity of Huizhou merchants and the prosperity of Huizhou culture.

The developed imperial examination industry in Huizhou in Ming and Qing Dynasties also promoted the development of Huizhou's commerce. First of all, a large number of Huizhou officials trained through imperial examinations have become the spokespersons and political umbrellas of Huizhou merchants in the court to some extent. These officials in Huizhou tried their best to protect the interests of Huizhou merchants in their administration and deliberations. During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the strong political backing of Huizhou merchants was the main reason why they were able to dominate the government-controlled industries of Huaihe River, Zhejiang Salt Industry, Tea Transportation and Sales, and Imperial Wood Purchase. Secondly, a large number of Huizhou students who had been educated by Confucianism had failed to enter the business circle for various reasons and became cultural businessmen. They are familiar with the Confucian way of dealing with people and things, and understand the history of the rise and fall of businessmen, so they can be skilled in planning, timing, business more and more lively, and eventually become rich businessmen giant.

The developed imperial examination industry in Huizhou in Ming and Qing Dynasties not only trained a large number of officials who lived in the feudal country and a group of cultural businessmen for Huizhou area, but also greatly improved the overall cultural quality of Huizhou people and trained various talents through imperial examination education, thus forming a "great number of humanities emerged and flourished". Neo-Confucianism, Confucianism and Confucianism are not lacking in the wild (Daoguang's Rebuilding Huizhou preface). Taking Shexian County as an example, the forerunners of family names are Tang Gao, Jin Bang, Hong Ying, Hong Jun, Xu Guoxiang, Cheng Guoxiang, Xu Guoxiang, Tang Zhongshi, Zhu Sheng, Tang Wenfeng, Yang Ning, Tang Wenfeng, Wu Huang, and so on. Those who are good at writing have good reputation. Wang Daokun, Zheng Huan, and other deputy teachers are Wang Hongzong and Wang Yingzhen. Zhu Xi, Dai Zhen and Hu Shi in Huizhou are the great masters of the academic circles in different historical periods, and are also three monuments in the history of thought. These talented people are leading the way in academic, painting, calligraphy, seal cutting, medicine, architecture, drama and other fields, thus forming a splendid and unique "Huizhou culture" of Xin'an Neo-Confucianism, Hui School of Puxue, Xin'an Medicine, Xin'an School of Painting, Hui School of Architecture, Hui School of Engraving Books, Hui School of Printing and Hui Opera. (Li Linqi) (Author's Unit: Social College of Anhui Normal University)

Follow Mr. Wu to visit Shitan.

We can provide you with comfortable accommodation and delicious catering service. At the same time, we can also provide discount tickets!